Snoring

Snoring is one of the common health disorders affecting nearly 45% of adults occasionally. It is caused due to narrowing of the upper airway during sleep which makes the surrounding tissues to vibrate. It is not a serious condition but it can create a nuisance to other persons. It also indicates that there is no proper sleep and it may cause some diseases after some time. This can affect more middle-aged and older men than women. Regular snoring can disrupt the quality of sleep that can lead to irritability, daytime fatigue, and other health problems.

Causes of Snoring:

The reason for snoring varies from person to person. It is caused due to improper air movement through nose and throat during sleep. This air blockage vibrates the surrounding tissues and causes snoring sound. It may also occur due to some health problems such as obesity, sleep apnea, etc. and for few people, it may be due to extra fatty tissues in the airways.

The most common causes of snoring are

  • Obesity
  • Supine body position (lying face up)
  • Large tonsils, long soft palate or uvula
  • Relaxation of tongue during sleep
  • Menopause
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Consuming alcohol, medication or tobacco products within six hours of sleep time
  • Nasal congestion from cold, allergies or any deformities of cartilage within the nose

Obesity:

Excess body weight can cause bulky throat tissues and contributes to snoring. Even if you are not overweight in general, but the excess weight just around the neck or throat can cause snoring.

Sleeping postureSleeping position:

Sleeping position is one of the main causes of snoring. Sleeping flat on your back causes the flesh of the throat to get relaxed and blocks the flow of air. This causes the person to snore and a change in sleeping position can help to stop snoring.

Body structure:

The structure of the body can also be a reason. Men have narrower air passages than women and so men get affected to snoring than women. A narrow throat, enlarged adenoids, a cleft palate, and other physical attributes also cause snoring.

Nasal and sinus problems:

Blocked airways due to cold and allergies can make inhalation difficult and creates a vacuum in the throat. This can lead to snoring.

Sleep Deprivation:

Sometimes, if there is no enough sleep continuously can make the person to snore.

Alcohol, Medication, and Smoking:

Intake of alcohol, smoking and certain medications such as tranquilizers like diazepam (Valium) and lorazepam (Ativan) can increase the relaxation of muscles leading to more snoring.

Symptoms:

  • Sore throat
  • Chest pain during sleep
  • Restlessness during sleep
  • Headaches in the morning
  • A choking feel during sleep
  • Waking up in the middle of the sleep due to choking or gasping
  • Headaches in the morning
  • Feeling sleepy during day time

Social and Health Consequences:

  • Snoring is an embarrassment when traveling with others.
  • It causes distress for sleeping partners
  • Sleep deprivation can cause a negative impact on well-being and quality of life
  • Snorers can experience tiredness, dry mouth, morning headaches, lower blood oxygen levels, relationship difficulties and other related consequences
  • Loud snoring possess serious health risks
  • It is number three on the list of reasons for divorce in married couples

Treatment:

Mild or occasional snoring can be alleviated by some changes in lifestyle such as reducing weight, avoiding alcohol, medication, heavy meals, and tobacco products within six hours before going to bed. There is no therapeutic option for treating snoring. Mandibular Advancement Splints/Devices are used for the treatment of snoring. These are custom made to fit the patient’s mouth. They require titration and adjustment for greater efficacy. Some may notice tooth movement and TMJ sensitivity which can reduce compliance.

 

 

Bone and Joint Infections in Children

In infancy the hip joint infections are common and it is called as septic arthritis of infancy. The commonest organisms are the staphylococcus, streptococcus, and pneumococcus. In infancy, the commonest source of infection is umbilical sepsis. From here the organism spread by the bloodstream and gets deposited in any one joint or many joints called septic arthritis. The commonest joint that is involved is the hip joint (Ball and socket joint). When the hip joint is involved within a week or ten days after delivery, the baby will not take the feed well, there may not be a high temperature, and baby may not move the particular limb called as ”pseudoparalysis”. Early diagnosis is important otherwise the cartilaginous part of the head of the femur will get destroyed leading on to permanent disability, gross limping and shortening of the limb. High degree of suspicion by the surgeon by taking x—ray, MRI scan and if necessary Bone scan.

Early antibiotic therapy, letting out the pus by arthrotomy (opening the joint by surgery) and immobilization will save the joint. If not attended immediately, permanent structural changes will occur in the bones of the hip joint leading on to gross shortening of the affected limb and limitation of movements of the hip joint.

Osteomyelitis is inflammation of the bone caused by bacteria. These bacteria may come from tonsillitis, abscess in some part of the body, and respiratory infection and gets into the blood stream and settle down in the bone and that is why it is called as acute hematogenous Osteomyelitis. In children above 18months, there may be a history of mild trauma, followed by temperature. On many occasions, the pain in the leg or thigh is attributed to the trauma and the infection is missed in the bone. The commonest bones that are affected are the lower end of the femur (Thigh bone) and the upper end of the tibia (Leg bone). But it can occur in any bone in the body.

Bone and Joint Infections in Children Antibiotic

The bacteria gets settled in the metaphysis of a long bone and starts multiplying and form an abscess which is within the bone. This will cause severe pain, high temperature and child will be limping. This stage is invariably missed by parents and treating physician as post-traumatic blood collection in the affected area. Later on, the abscess inside the bone spreads to the periphery and center of bone and the abscess comes to the surface of the skin.

By this time enough damage is done to the blood supply of bone leading on to chronic Osteomyelitis which is a very difficult problem to deal with. Hence children with acute hematogenous Osteomyelitis must be diagnosed early with proper diagnosis.

X—ray appearance is normal in the acute stage. Hence it is often missed. The total white cell count will be increased, MRI Scan will show early changes and occasionally bone scan is useful. Once an early diagnosis is made massive, a dose of broad-spectrum antibiotic is given intravenously every 8 hours for 48 hours, and limb must be immobilized. If the pain and temperature do not subside within 48 hours, we will have to drill the bone and let out the pus and send the pus for culture and sensitivity before it goes in for chronic Osteomyelitis. If the culture grows, the organism and the sensitivity test shows which antibiotic is better that particular antibiotic therapy has to be given for 6 weeks. Early intervention of acute hematogenous Osteomyelitis is important to prevent chronicity which is a great nuisance.

Sinus Headache

A sinus headache is a common disease that affects most of the people all over the world. Sinuses are air-filled cavities (spaces) inside forehead, cheekbones, and behind the bridge of the nose. Due to certain allergies or infection, the sinuses becomes inflamed and prevents the outflow of mucus. So, there may be a slight pressure on the areas of cheek, forehead, and eyes and causes pain between the eyes and the portion just above the nose. This sinus headache causes severe pain like a tension headache or a migraine that may range from normal to severe pain. It is advised to know about the type of a headache and treat according to it.

Causes of a sinus headache:

The main cause of a sinus headache is the infection in the sinus cavities by bacteria or viruses. The other causes are listed below

  • Fungal infections can cause a sinus headache.
  • Infections like cold or allergic reactions affect the nasal cavity and cause swelling in the nose and also inflammation of the sinuses.
  • The draining ability of the sinus gets reduced due to allergies and causes pain in the forehead and under the eyes.
  • Stagnation of fluid increases the growth of viruses and bacteria.
  • Dental infections can move to the sinus and cause pain.

Symptoms of a sinus headache:

The symptoms of a sinus headache are listed below

  • Constant pain or pressure in the forehead, cheekbones, and bridge of the nose
  • Runny nose
  • Fever
  • Feeling of fullness in ears
  • Swelling in the face

Treatment for a sinus headache:

A sinus headache is diagnosed based on the history and physical examination. There is no need for blood test and X-rays. The inflammation within the sinus passage can be reduced by decreasing the pressure and the fluid can be drained with the help of proper treatment. Antibiotics are not necessary. It is recommended to take the decongestant and pain-relieving medicines for a headache.

Natural Home Remedies for Sinus Pain

Natural Pain Relief Supplements:

The inflammation and pain can be reduced by taking some natural supplements that are listed below

  • Bromelain derived from pineapple reduces the inflammation and other symptoms of a sinus headache.
  • Quercetin is a flavonoid present in fruits and vegetables which reduce the release of histamine. As histamine causes inflammation and pressure in the sinuses.
  • Drink warm water to reduce the inflammation and congestion in the nose.
  • Intake of fruits rich in Vitamin C like Oranges, Pomegranate, Gooseberry boosts the immune system of the body.