Over the years, we have received tremendous support from the people of Madurai. Different people choose different ways to contribute to society, some choose to donate money, and some choose to raise money by reaching out to their inner circle, some volunteer their time and skills.DMH provides a platform for everyone to find a perfect match in terms of the manner in which they want to give back to society.
- Vitamin D is labelled as the “sunshine vitamin,” as it is produced in the skin on sun exposure
- Vitamin D is required to maintain serum calcium concentration within the normal physiologic range for musculoskeletal health.
- Vitamin D deficiency in children causes rickets and prevents children from reaching their peak bone mass and genetically determined height
- In adults, vitamin D deficiency results in abnormal mineralization of the collagen matrix in bone referred to as osteomalacia.
- Deficiency of ViataminD is attributed to an increase in the incidence of obesity, a decrease in milk consumption and use of sun protection.
- aching bones is a common complaint in vitamin D deficient individuals.
- Vitamin D deficiency also results in muscle weakness and muscle pain
- obese people require larger units of vitamin D supplementation to maintain an adequate level of vitamin D in the body.
- Very few foods are a natural source of vitamin D. These include oily fish such as salmon, mackerel, and sardines.
- It is recommended that the level of the circulating form of vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) is checked at least twice a year
Snoring is one of the common health disorders affecting nearly 45% of adults occasionally. It is caused due to narrowing of the upper airway during sleep which makes the surrounding tissues to vibrate. It is not a serious condition but it can create a nuisance to other persons. It also indicates that there is no proper sleep and it may cause some diseases after some time. This can affect more middle-aged and older men than women. Regular snoring can disrupt the quality of sleep that can lead to irritability, daytime fatigue, and other health problems.
Causes of Snoring:
The reason for snoring varies from person to person. It is caused due to improper air movement through nose and throat during sleep. This air blockage vibrates the surrounding tissues and causes snoring sound. It may also occur due to some health problems such as obesity, sleep apnea, etc. and for few people, it may be due to extra fatty tissues in the airways.
The most common causes of snoring are
- Supine body position (lying face up)
- Large tonsils, long soft palate or uvula
- Relaxation of tongue during sleep
- Consuming alcohol, medication or tobacco products within six hours of sleep time
- Nasal congestion from cold, allergies or any deformities of cartilage within the nose
Excess body weight can cause bulky throat tissues and contributes to snoring. Even if you are not overweight in general, but the excess weight just around the neck or throat can cause snoring.
Sleeping position is one of the main causes of snoring. Sleeping flat on your back causes the flesh of the throat to get relaxed and blocks the flow of air. This causes the person to snore and a change in sleeping position can help to stop snoring.
The structure of the body can also be a reason. Men have narrower air passages than women and so men get affected to snoring than women. A narrow throat, enlarged adenoids, a cleft palate, and other physical attributes also cause snoring.
Nasal and sinus problems:
Blocked airways due to cold and allergies can make inhalation difficult and creates a vacuum in the throat. This can lead to snoring.
Sometimes, if there is no enough sleep continuously can make the person to snore.
Alcohol, Medication, and Smoking:
Intake of alcohol, smoking and certain medications such as tranquilizers like diazepam (Valium) and lorazepam (Ativan) can increase the relaxation of muscles leading to more snoring.
- Sore throat
- Chest pain during sleep
- Restlessness during sleep
- Headaches in the morning
- A choking feel during sleep
- Waking up in the middle of the sleep due to choking or gasping
- Headaches in the morning
- Feeling sleepy during day time
Social and Health Consequences:
- Snoring is an embarrassment when traveling with others.
- It causes distress for sleeping partners
- Sleep deprivation can cause a negative impact on well-being and quality of life
- Snorers can experience tiredness, dry mouth, morning headaches, lower blood oxygen levels, relationship difficulties and other related consequences
- Loud snoring possess serious health risks
- It is number three on the list of reasons for divorce in married couples
Mild or occasional snoring can be alleviated by some changes in lifestyle such as reducing weight, avoiding alcohol, medication, heavy meals, and tobacco products within six hours before going to bed. There is no therapeutic option for treating snoring. Mandibular Advancement Splints/Devices are used for the treatment of snoring. These are custom made to fit the patient’s mouth. They require titration and adjustment for greater efficacy. Some may notice tooth movement and TMJ sensitivity which can reduce compliance.
In infancy the hip joint infections are common and it is called as septic arthritis of infancy. The commonest organisms are the staphylococcus, streptococcus, and pneumococcus. In infancy, the commonest source of infection is umbilical sepsis. From here the organism spread by the bloodstream and gets deposited in any one joint or many joints called septic arthritis. The commonest joint that is involved is the hip joint (Ball and socket joint). When the hip joint is involved within a week or ten days after delivery, the baby will not take the feed well, there may not be a high temperature, and baby may not move the particular limb called as ”pseudoparalysis”. Early diagnosis is important otherwise the cartilaginous part of the head of the femur will get destroyed leading on to permanent disability, gross limping and shortening of the limb. High degree of suspicion by the surgeon by taking x—ray, MRI scan and if necessary Bone scan.
Early antibiotic therapy, letting out the pus by arthrotomy (opening the joint by surgery) and immobilization will save the joint. If not attended immediately, permanent structural changes will occur in the bones of the hip joint leading on to gross shortening of the affected limb and limitation of movements of the hip joint.
Osteomyelitis is inﬂammation of the bone caused by bacteria. These bacteria may come from tonsillitis, abscess in some part of the body, and respiratory infection and gets into the blood stream and settle down in the bone and that is why it is called as acute hematogenous Osteomyelitis. In children above 18months, there may be a history of mild trauma, followed by temperature. On many occasions, the pain in the leg or thigh is attributed to the trauma and the infection is missed in the bone. The commonest bones that are affected are the lower end of the femur (Thigh bone) and the upper end of the tibia (Leg bone). But it can occur in any bone in the body.
The bacteria gets settled in the metaphysis of a long bone and starts multiplying and form an abscess which is within the bone. This will cause severe pain, high temperature and child will be limping. This stage is invariably missed by parents and treating physician as post-traumatic blood collection in the affected area. Later on, the abscess inside the bone spreads to the periphery and center of bone and the abscess comes to the surface of the skin.
By this time enough damage is done to the blood supply of bone leading on to chronic Osteomyelitis which is a very difficult problem to deal with. Hence children with acute hematogenous Osteomyelitis must be diagnosed early with proper diagnosis.
X—ray appearance is normal in the acute stage. Hence it is often missed. The total white cell count will be increased, MRI Scan will show early changes and occasionally bone scan is useful. Once an early diagnosis is made massive, a dose of broad-spectrum antibiotic is given intravenously every 8 hours for 48 hours, and limb must be immobilized. If the pain and temperature do not subside within 48 hours, we will have to drill the bone and let out the pus and send the pus for culture and sensitivity before it goes in for chronic Osteomyelitis. If the culture grows, the organism and the sensitivity test shows which antibiotic is better that particular antibiotic therapy has to be given for 6 weeks. Early intervention of acute hematogenous Osteomyelitis is important to prevent chronicity which is a great nuisance.
A sinus headache is a common disease that affects most of the people all over the world. Sinuses are air-filled cavities (spaces) inside forehead, cheekbones, and behind the bridge of the nose. Due to certain allergies or infection, the sinuses becomes inflamed and prevents the outflow of mucus. So, there may be a slight pressure on the areas of cheek, forehead, and eyes and causes pain between the eyes and the portion just above the nose. This sinus headache causes severe pain like a tension headache or a migraine that may range from normal to severe pain. It is advised to know about the type of a headache and treat according to it.
Causes of a sinus headache:
The main cause of a sinus headache is the infection in the sinus cavities by bacteria or viruses. The other causes are listed below
- Fungal infections can cause a sinus headache.
- Infections like cold or allergic reactions affect the nasal cavity and cause swelling in the nose and also inflammation of the sinuses.
- The draining ability of the sinus gets reduced due to allergies and causes pain in the forehead and under the eyes.
- Stagnation of fluid increases the growth of viruses and bacteria.
- Dental infections can move to the sinus and cause pain.
Symptoms of a sinus headache:
The symptoms of a sinus headache are listed below
- Constant pain or pressure in the forehead, cheekbones, and bridge of the nose
- Runny nose
- Feeling of fullness in ears
- Swelling in the face
Treatment for a sinus headache:
A sinus headache is diagnosed based on the history and physical examination. There is no need for blood test and X-rays. The inflammation within the sinus passage can be reduced by decreasing the pressure and the fluid can be drained with the help of proper treatment. Antibiotics are not necessary. It is recommended to take the decongestant and pain-relieving medicines for a headache.
Natural Pain Relief Supplements:
The inflammation and pain can be reduced by taking some natural supplements that are listed below
- Bromelain derived from pineapple reduces the inflammation and other symptoms of a sinus headache.
- Quercetin is a flavonoid present in fruits and vegetables which reduce the release of histamine. As histamine causes inflammation and pressure in the sinuses.
- Drink warm water to reduce the inflammation and congestion in the nose.
- Intake of fruits rich in Vitamin C like Oranges, Pomegranate, Gooseberry boosts the immune system of the body.
Keloids are noncancerous, fibrous skin tumors. It rises above the skin and has a smooth appearance on the top. It is usually pink in color with irregular shape and the size increases gradually. It starts due to any injuries and will extend beyond the injuries and do not get subsided like ordinary scars. It can also spread to the surrounding areas of the wound.
Keloids can occur in both men and women. It is usually caused due to certain damages in the skin. The skin damages that can cause keloids are
- Chicken pox
- Chicken pox
- Body piercing
- Insect bites
It can occur spontaneously in some people and even minor abrasions can cause the keloid to develop on the skin.
It occurs mainly on the chest, back, shoulders and earlobes.
The color of the scar ranges from pink to red.
Raised, shiny, dome-shaped appearance
Some scars will be itchy and also painful to touch
Keloids can be diagnosed by the doctor or dermatologist. It is based on the location and appearance of the scar and its progressive time. A skin biopsy can be done for diagnosing and ruling out any malignant tumor.
Currently, there is no effective treatment to treat keloids. But there is a chance in regrowth of keloids after the removal. Sometimes, it can grow larger than before. Some of the treatments for Keloids are listed below
- Inflammations can be reduced by corticosteroid injections.
- The tissues can be softened with moisturizing oils.
- The skin cells can be killed by freezing the tissues.
- The scar tissue can be reduced by laser treatment.
- Radiations can be done to shrink the keloids.
Initially, less invasive treatments will be recommended to shrink and flatten the keloids. In the case of larger keloids, surgical removal is done by using steroid injections.
Appendicitis is a condition due to inflammation of the appendix, a three and a half inches long tube of tissue. It extends from the large intestine and produces antibodies. If it becomes inflamed, then the person has to undergo a surgery to remove the appendix immediately. If it is not treated properly, then it will burst or spill out the infectious materials to the abdominal cavity. This may lead to peritonitis. Peritonitis is a condition in which there is an inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity. It may become fatal and should be treated quickly with antibiotics.
Causes of Appendicitis:
Appendicitis occurs when there is a block in the appendix due to stool or a foreign body. The block may be due to infections and it causes swelling in response to any infection in the body.
Symptoms of Appendicitis:
- The classic symptoms of appendicitis are as follows
- A feel of dull pain near the upper abdomen or naval area which becomes sharp and moves to the lower right abdomen. This is the first sign of appendicitis.
- Nausea or vomiting
- Loss of appetite
- Abdominal swelling
- Fever with 99-102 degree Fahrenheit
- Inability to pass gas
- Severe cramps
- Pain in passing urine
- Constipation with gas
Diagnosis of Appendicitis:
- The following tests are usually made to diagnose appendicitis. They are
- Rectal exam
- Abdominal exam to detect inflammation
- Urine test
- Blood test
- CT scans / ultrasound
Treatment for Appendicitis:
The condition is treated with the surgery named appendectomy. It is a standard treatment for treating appendicitis. Most of the surgeries are aimed at removing the appendix so that there will be no fear of rupture. If there is a chance of rupture, then immediate surgery is essential to treat it.
Some of the home remedies for treating appendicitis are listed below
- Consumption of fruits and vegetables helps to pass out the mucus and other toxins.
- One teaspoon of green gram regularly cleanses the system effectively.
- Garlic prevents the swelling of appendix
- Plenty of water helps to flush out the system by maintaining a healthy appendix
- Intake beet and cucumber juices.
Floating kidney is a condition in which the kidney moves down from its normal position when a person stands straight or lies flat. This is medically known as nephroptosis. If a kidney moves downwards, then it is suggested that it is not fixed fully by the tissues surrounding it. It is also known as kidney prolapse condition.
Floating kidney can occur in both men and women but it is far common in women. It is estimated that 20% of the women have floating kidney but only a few experience its symptoms. It tends to affect the right kidney more than the left.
Causes of Floating Kidney:
The causes of floating kidney are listed below
- Kidneys are supported by a soft connective tissue called perirenal fascia. When this tissue is damaged or not present in abundance, then it will cause floating kidney.
- If anyone receives a blow to the kidney or the area above or below the kidney, then there may be a chance of floating kidney. This is not due to congenital defect.
- Young women who have thin and long waists can be affected.
Symptoms of Floating Kidney:
When a person experiences the following symptoms, it should be treated. It can occur rarely in some people.
- If the kidney is displaced, it can cause ureter to kink.
- Can cause pain during urination.
- May suffer from nausea, chills and high blood pressure.
- If there is a pain in the flank area, then it may cause discomfort.
Diagnosis of Floating Kidney:
Diagnosis can be done through a series of X-rays in the supine or the standing position if the person has any symptoms related to it. If the person has no pain or discomfort, then there is no need of diagnosis.
Treatment for Floating Kidney:
When a person has floating kidney and does not suffer from any symptoms, then there is no need of any treatment.
If the ureter becomes kinked and causes pain along with nausea, vomiting, and constipation, then the following home remedies are suggested
⦁ Make the patient lie in bed and keep them warm.
⦁ Warm bottles can be applied to the side abdomen area.
⦁ Diet with fattening substances should be given to increase the fat around the kidney.
⦁ To provide support and get relief from discomfort, a belt with rubber padding is suggested to wear around the area.
If these home remedies do not fix the problem, then a surgery called nephropexy is suggested. This surgery is done through laparoscopic techniques. It will make the kidney to place in correct position and the pain also eventually disappears.
Lung cancer is one of the deadly diseases and about 1.2 million people die due to lung cancer all over the world. The main cause of lung cancer is smoking. But a research says that one fifth of the lung cancer occurs in people who never smokes in their life. Lung cancer is often diagnosed at the later stage where the risk increases and it becomes not curable.
A VEGETABLE THAT REDUCES THE RISK OF LUNG CANCER:
Most of the people hear that garlic is a healthy vegetable. A study reveals that garlic helps to treat lung cancer effectively. Consuming raw garlic regularly reduces the risk of lung cancer and it is found effective on regular smokers. Garlic is rich in medicinal properties and it is widely used as a home remedy for curing many diseases. Recently, researchers revealed that garlic reduces the risk of lung cancer.
RESEARCHES ON GARLIC:
Researchers tested patients suffering from lung cancer with the healthy people. At the end of the research, it is proved that people who consumed fresh garlic for at least two times per week have a lower risk of lung cancer by 44 percent. People with smoking habit also has 30 percent lower risk of lung cancer. These researches are made on fresh raw garlic and it is not known on the preserved or dried garlic.
HEALTH BENEFITS OF GARLIC:
Garlic has a chemical called ‘allicin’, a sulfur compound that is formed when it is crushed or chopped. This Allicin has many medicinal values and the health benefits of garlic are listed below
• Allicin is an anti-oxidant that prevents the formation of free radicals in the body.
• Reduces the inflammations.
• Used as a natural remedy to treat colds and infections.
• Lowers the blood pressure and increases the production of insulin.
• Blocks the formation of cancer-causing substances.
• Enhances DNS repair.
• Reduces cell proliferation or induce cell death.
• Reduces the risk of several forms of cancer such as stomach, lung, esophageal, breast, colorectal and bladder.
Fractures in children are common in the age group between 1 year to 15 years. More common in boys than in girls because they are more naughty. The left upper extremity fracture seems to be common, as the left assumes the role of protection during the fall. In the lower limbs, fracture of the thigh bone (femur) and leg bone (Tibia and fibula) are common.
In children, the fracture management is simple with plaster cast (recently the fiberglass) immobilization. The healing and remodeling potential is very high. However, whenever the child is brought to us with the fracture in the upper limb or lower limb, the first question the parents ask is, whether my child will become normal as before, whether there will be any deformity and any shortening etc. The answer is very simple, if it is treated by a well-trained Orthopaedic surgeon, complications will not occur. In our village setup, many parents take their children to native bone setter and then get into complications like deformity, shortening, neurological and vascular problems.
Very commonly when the child falls from a cycle or while playing, he or she falls with the outstretched hand on the left side or right side. When this happens, the impact will be transmitted to the wrist, forearm bones, elbow, shoulder, and clavicle.
The commonest fractures which we see are the “Greenstick” fracture of forearm bones and supracondylar fracture of the humerus above the elbow joint.
Child’s bones are like a thin branch of a tree (Green Stick), hence it breaks on one side of the cortex and the other side bends. The treatment here is straightening the bone under anesthesia and giving a plaster cast for 3 weeks is sufficient. Taking care of the plaster by the parents is important. Otherwise, the bone will deform again. Very often the parents tend to take the child to the bone setter and we see a lot of complications because of the native splints. Another important factor in children fracture healing is that deformities gradually gets corrected. This may take 2 years.
Supracondylar Fracture Humerus:
This is the commonest of all elbow injuries. Whenever the child complains of pain and swelling of the elbow, X-ray must be taken to rule out any fracture. An undisplaced fracture can be treated with a plaster cast for 3 weeks. After 3 weeks, physiotherapy is important to get back the normal range of movements.
In displaced fracture, the modern method is to reduce the fracture under anesthesia and under fluoroscopic control and fix with 2 criss-cross Kirschner wires, for 3 weeks and above elbow plaster cast. After 3 weeks, the wires are removed and one more week plaster is given and exercises are started.
The physiotherapeutic measures must be done well. Otherwise, the child will develop post-traumatic stiffness.
Fractures in children are common. Parents must take all efforts to take them to the correct orthopedic surgeon who can treat better without any complications.